P.2.1 Compare physical properties of samples of matter: (strength, hardness, flexibility, ability to conduct heat, ability to conduct electricity, ability to be attracted by magnets, reactions to water and fire).
4.E.2.1 Compare fossils (including molds, casts, and preserved parts of plants and animals) to one another and to living organisms.
4.E.2.2 Infer ideas about Earth's early environments from fossils of plants and animals that lived long ago.
Weathering, Erosion and the Movement of Glaciers are all SLOW processes that change the surface of the Earth.
chemical weathering- the decomposition of rocks due to chemical reactions occurring between the minerals in rocks and the environment; caused by chemicals found in water, acids, and oxidation
physical weathering- also known as mechanical weathering, it is the process that breaks rocks apart without changing their chemical composition; can be caused by moving water, ice, and plant roots
weathering- the process in which rocks are either broken into smaller particles (physical weathering) or changed into other kinds of minerals (chemical weathering).
canyon- a V-shaped valley eroded by a river
delta- a fan-shaped deposit at the mouth of a river
deposition- the process by which eroded earth materials settle out in another place
dune- a mound, hill, or ridge of wind-blown sand
erosion- the process by which soil and rock are removed from the Earth's surface, transported and deposited in other locations
floodplain-the land that gets covered by water from a stream or river during a flood
meander- a curve or loop in a river
mountain- high, uplifted area with steep slopes
plateau- nearly level area that has been uplifted
sediment- eroded earth materials
valley- a low area between hills and mountains; often where a river flows
basin- a low area in which sediments are often deposited
channel- the course or path water takes over the earth's surface
alluvial fan- the fan-shaped landform made up of deposited sediments at the bottom of a slope
gravity- the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other
landslide- the usually rapid downward movement of a mass of rock, earth, or artificial fill on a slope
slope- a surface of which one end or side
flash flood- the result of heavy or excessive amounts of rainfall within a short period of time, usually less than 6 hours, causing water to rise and fall quite rapidly
flood- an overflow of water onto normally dry land; The inundation of a normally dry area caused by rising water in an existing waterway, such as a river, stream, or drainage ditch (Flooding is a longer term event than flash flooding: it may last days or weeks)
floodplain- the area around a river that is covered by water flowing over the riverbank during a flood.
lava- molten rock on the earth's surface
lava flow- stream of molten or hardened lava coming out from a volcano or crack in the earth's surface
magma- molten rock under the earth's surface
strata- layers of lava flows
volcano- a vent in the crust of the earth or another planet or a moon; usually molten or hot rock, steam, and gas come out of the vent ; also : a hill or mountain made of hardened lava flows; usually have a crater or caldera
earthquake- a sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic activity
fault- a crack in the earth's crust
body fossils- preserved remains of body parts such as teeth, shells, or bones
cast fossil- a positive imprint of an organism preserved in rock; when a mold fossil fills in with minerals or sediment and hardens
fossil- the preserved remains of organisms
mold fossils- a negative imprint of an organism preserved in rocks; a hollow space is left in the rock once the organism has decomposed
petrification- occurs when parts of the organism are saturated with minerals
trace fossils- fossilized evidence of the behavior of past organisms such as footprints, eggs, nests, and droppings
fossil record- fossils and their placement within the earth's rock strata. The fossil record provides information about the history of life on earth, for instance what the organisms looked like, where and when they lived, how they evolved, etc
relative age- the geologic age of a fossil, rock, geologic feature or event relative to other fossils , rocks, geologic features or events
geologic time- a period of time covering the formation and development of earth